Plants Poisonous to Goats

03 July, 2016rodster385Comments (0)

Here is a complete listing provided by Cornell University

 

Goats are browsers that will eat just about anything including the shirt off your back. However some common plants are poisonous to goats and can kill them. Learn what types of plants to look out for so you can keep your goats away from these areas of your farm or yard.

Here is a list of common plants belonging to the caprine species that are known to cause death in goats. This list is not complete, and there may be other plants growing on your farm that need identification. If you think your goat has consumed a poisonous plant, contact your veterinarian. It is also a good idea to collect a sample of the plant you believe your goat has consumed so your veterinarian can properly identify the risk.

Alkaloid Containing Plants

Aconite Allspice Black Snake Root Bloodroot
Blue Cohosh Boxwood Celandine Common Poppy
Crotalaria Crow Poison Death Camas Dicentra
False Hellebore False Jessamine Fume Wort Hellebore
Hemp Horse Nettle Indian Hemp Indian Poke
Jimson Weed Larkspur Lobelia Lupines
Marijuana Monkshood Moonseed Nightshade
Pink Death Camas Poison Darnel Poison Hemlock Poison Rye Grass
Rattle weed Rock Poppy Senecio Spider Lily
Spotted Cowbane Spotted Water Hemlock Stagger Grass Stagger weed
Sweet Shrub Thorn Apple Varebells Wild Parsnip
Wolfs-Bane Yellow Jessamin    

Cyanogenetic Containing Plants

The following plants are usually deadly to goats when consumed in a damaged or frozen state.

Arrow Grass Black Locust Blue Cohosh Broomcarn
Buckeye Cherry Choke Cherry Corn Cockle
Dogbane Elderberry Hemp Horse Nettle
Indian Hemp Ivy Johnson Grass Kafir
Laurel Leucothoe Lily of the Valley Maleberry
Marijuana Milkweed Milo Nightshade
Oleander Rhododendron Sevenbark Silver
Sneezewood Sorghum Stagger Brush Sudan Grass
Velvet Grass White Snakeroot Wild Black Cherry Wild Hydrangea

 

Plants That Cause Physical Injury

Some plants, while they are not poisonous, can cause damage to the goat in other ways. For example, thorny or spiky plants can puncture or tear a goat's internal organs. Other plants that are stringy can tangle up inside a goat's intestines, causing intestinal blockages and other difficulties.

Saponin Containing Plants

  • Bagpod
  • Coffee Weed
  • Purple Sesban
  • Rattlebox
  • Soapwort

Photosensitizing Plants

Photosensitization occurs when an animal consumes a plant that contains properties which allow the plant to interact with sunlight. If a goat eats a photosensitizing plant, the goat could become overly susceptible to sunburn or heat stroke.

Common photosensitizing plants include:

  • Buckwheat
  • Goat Weed
  • Klamath Weed
  • Lantana
  • Rape
  • St. John's Wort

Resin Containing Plants

Christmas trees contain resin, and many people feed leftover Christmas trees to goats when Christmas season has ended. This may not be such a good idea, as new research indicates plants containing resin could have delayed effects and be the cause of miscarriage in pregnant goats.


Goat Dewormer Medications

03 July, 2016rodster385Comments (0)

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Anthelmintics for Goat Producers
Avermectins
Brand Name: Ivomec, Double Impact, Top-line, Phoenectin Pour-on
Active Ingredient(s): ivermectin 1% (injectable) ivermectin 0.5% (pour-on)
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 35 days before slaughter
Indications:
Control of internal and external parasites
Dosage: 1ml per 110 lbs. SQ (injectable) 1ml per 22 lbs. applied topically (pour-on)
Goat Notes: Give all avermectin wormers orally. 1% Injectable 1ml per 50lbs; 0.5% pour on 1ml per 10 lbs.
Brand Name: Ivomec Plus
Active Ingredient(s): ivermectin 1% and clorsulon 10%
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 56 days before slaughter
Indications:
Control of internal and external parasites including adult liver flukes
Dosage: 1ml per 110 lbs. SQ
Goat Notes: 1ml per 50 lbs. to control external and internal parasites including liver flukes
Brand Name: Dectomax
Active Ingredient(s): doramectin 1% injectable; doramectin 0.5% pour-on
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 35 days before slaughter for injectable; 42 days before slaughter for pour-on
Indications:
Control of internal and external parasites
Dosage: 1ml per 75 lbs. SQ or IM (injectable) 5ml per 110 lbs. applied topically (pour-on)
Goat Notes: 1 ml per 35 lbs. given orally (injectable) 1lm per 10 lbs. given orally (pour-on)
Brand Name: Eprinex (Ivomec)
Active Ingredient(s): eprinomectin 5mg
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: No slaughter or milk withdrawal on cattle
Indications:
Control of internal and external parasites
Dosage: 5ml per 100 lbs. applied topically (pour-on)
Goat Notes: 1 ml per 10 lbs. Great for treating kids; although a larger amount is needed per pound,
small goats can be accurately dosed.
Used frequently in dairy goats(No milk withdrawal) at 2-3 times the cattle dose.

 


Milbymycin
Brand Name: Cydectin, Quest Equine Wormer
Active Ingredient(s): moxidectin
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: No slaughter withdrawal on cattle
Indications:
Control of internal and external parasites
Dosage: 5ml per 110 lbs. applied topically
Goat Notes: 1ml per 25 lbs. given orally - this is the most effective wormer we have right now.

 


Benzimidazole
Brand Name: Safe-guard, Panacur, Benzelmin
Active Ingredient(s): fenbendazole
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 8 days before slaughter
Indications:
Control of internal parasites
Dosage: varies with brand and type of product
Goat Notes: Treat with 3x the label dosage for 3 days in a row to kill tape worms. Most stomach and intestinal worms show resistance to fenbendazole products. Extremely high safety margin.
Brand Name: Synanthic
Active Ingredient(s): oxfendazole
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 11 days before slaughter
Indications:
Control of internal parasites
Dosage: varies with brand and type of product
Goat Notes: Treat with 2x - 3x the label dosage for 3 days in a row to kill tape worms. Most stomach and intestinal worms show resistance to fenbendazole products. Synanthic can be given to weak and anemic goats at 2x the sheep dosage when goats heavily infested with parasites and are unlikely to be able to recover from the bleed out of a large parasite population dying at one time. Extremely high safety margin.
Brand Name: Valbazen
Active Ingredient(s): albendazole
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: days before slaughter
Indications:
Use Valbazen to control of internal parasites including adult liver flukes.
Dosage: varies with type of product
Goat Notes: Treat with 3x the label dosage for 3 days in a row to kill tape worms. Most stomach and intestinal worms show resistance to fenbendazole products. Extremely high safety margin. Do not use on does of breeding age that have been exposed to a buck, or those that are bred. May cause abortion or birth defects.

 


Tetrahydropyrimidine
Brand Name: Strongid - T
Active Ingredient(s): pyrantel pamoate
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: not established
Indications:
Control of internal parasites
Dosage: 3 mg per 1 lb.
Goat Notes: 4.5 mg per 1 lb. Has bee recommended for use in goats.

Brand Name: Rumatel
Active Ingredient(s): morantel tartrate
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 30 days before slaughter
Indications:
Control of internal parasites
Dosage: Use to medicate feed at the rate of 0.44 grams per 100lbs.
Goat Notes: Mix crumbles in feed at the rate of 25 lbs. per ton. Use this as supplemental parasite control; continue worming with other products as needed. Worm goats thoroughly before starting on medicated feed.

 


Coccidia Prevention
Brand Name: Bovatec
Active Ingredient(s): lasalocid sodium
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: None
Indications:
Control of coccidia FDA approved for non-lactating sheep.
Dosage: not less than 15 mg and no more than 70 mg daily. Do not feed to Equines.
Goat Notes: It is available as a feed additive and in blocks. Caution: Bovatec blocks are high in copper.

Brand Name: Corrid
Active Ingredient(s): amprolium
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 1 day before slaughter for beef calves
Indications:
Control of coccidia
Dosage: mix in drinking water as directed. Corrid is available in liquid or soluble powder.
Goat Notes: Coccidia has shown a high incidence of resistance with Corrid. There are other products on the market that are more effective. Also, Corrid depletes the thiamin levels in the rumen, need to watch out for thiamin deficiency polio when treating.

Brand Name: Deccox
Active Ingredient(s): decoquinate
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: none
Indications:
Control of coccidia
Dosage: Mix in feed ration to provide a daily dose of 22.7mg per 100 lbs. Feed for at least 28 days during exposure or stress.
Goat Notes: Although many people prefer Deccox because of it is safe around equines, Deccox is a rumen inhibitor, and I don't believe is as effective as rumensin or bovatec.

Brand Name: Rumensin
Active Ingredient(s): monensin sodium
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: None
Indications:
Control of coccidia
Dosage: Mix 20g rumensin per ton of feed. Can feed continuously.
Goat Notes: Most effective product for goats. Ingestion by equines can be fatal.

Brand Name: Sulmet
Active Ingredient(s): sulfamethazine
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 10 days before slaughter
Indications:
Bacterial pneumonia, E.Coli, Diphtheria, mastitis, and coccidiosis. May use soluble powder, constitute per package instruction and give 15cc orally.
Dosage:
Goat Notes: Dose orally or mix with drinking water, first dose is double the following four doses. Do not give with penicillin.
Brand Name: Albon
Active Ingredient(s): sulferdimethox
Availability: OTC
Withdrawal: 10 days before slaughter
Indications:
Sulferdimethox is effective against Bacterial pneumonia, E.Coli, Diphtheria, mastitis, and coccidiosis. May use soluble powder, constitute per package instruction and give 15cc orally.
Dosage: can be drenched or mixed with drinking water for self-medicating.
Goat Notes: Available in liquid and soluble powder form. Albon is also available in injectable form. It is very effective for coccidia and certain types of mastitis. Can also be added to milk replacer to treat kids. Good management for freshly castrated kids. Do not give with penicillin


Worms and Internal Parasites

18 September, 2015rodster385Comments (0)

What are internal parasites? They are just “WORMS”! Goat producers across the United States are seeing both economic and production losses. Internal parasites are recognized as a prominent goat disease. Goats that become infected may become ill or even die. They may become lethargic, have diarrhea, lose weight or just maintain their weight. Sometimes these signs may go undetected. Internal parasites infect the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lungs, blood system, lymphatic system, and skin.


Life Cycles

Every herd in the United States has some parasites. There are several main parasites that invade goats.

Haemonchus contortus (barberpole worm)
Ostertagia (round worms including stomach worm, Cooper’s worm, wire worm, hookworm, threadworm, whipworm, and nodular worm)
Trichostrongylus (lung worms)
Tapeworms
Coccidiosis
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (meningeal or brain worm)

Goats ingest these parasites while they are on pasture or even in the confines of your barn. You may ask how are they picked-up? The adult worm is living in the host’s abomasum, one of the parts of the stomach, and lays eggs in large numbers that are then passed in the manure. At this point, the eggs need to develop and hatch. This could take from five days to several months. These larvae will develop in the conditions that we all have (warm and wet). Parasitism is more of a problem in the spring when we have ideal conditions. However, we do see problems during other times of the year when the weather permits. Prior to these larvae becoming mature they are ineffective. However, once they hatch they need to be ingested by the goat to complete the life cycle.


The larvae are not very mobile. They need rain to basically splash them onto blades of grass in the pasture. If your goats are forced to graze the pasture close this will usually increase the number of larvae ingested. As one might think the larvae are highly concentrated in the area close to the ground.


Once the larvae are eaten it takes approximately 2 weeks for Haemonchus contortus to become an adult and then begin to lay eggs. However, Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus take approximately three weeks to develop and begin to lay eggs. You may wonder “Why do I need to know these time periods?” Well, this is important when you are developing a strategic parasite control program. Some larvae become dormant and wait to develop. At this stage some larvae become protected from some de-wormers.


Damage is caused by any of these parasites at any time. The first damage is caused by the larvae in the stomach, where they damage the gland cells. Haemonchus is a bloodsucker that removes considerable amounts of blood from the host. These larvae remove large amounts of blood, sometimes faster than the host can replenish. This will ultimately result in death.


By the time any of the fore mentioned symptoms are visible a lot of damage has occurred. It is very important to consult a veterinarian for proper diagnosis. Many of the symptoms that result from parasites are the same symptoms of many other diseases.

Coccidiosis is somewhat different from most parasites because infection is direct from an egg-like stage called an oocyst. It is also picked up during grazing or in the barn. Coccidiosis is a major cause of poor feed efficiency and poor growth. The parasite is normally present in all ages of goats, but affects younger animals the most. It often shows clinical symptoms when the animals have been stressed in some way, including changes in the weather.

Meningeal or brain worm is a problem where there are high populations of deer. This parasite is carried by deer in the lining of their brain. It has no effect on the deer, but can greatly affect goats. Larvae of the brain worm are passed in the manure of the deer. Then, the larvae are eaten by snails and slugs. Goats become infected when they eat the snails or slugs that are found on blades of grass in the pasture.

Parasite numbers on pastures
When are my pastures most likely to infect my goats with parasites? Do the larvae over- winter? These are just a few questions that you may be asking.

The highest number of larvae are present in the pasture when the climate is most suitable for survival. If the weather has been warm and damp, the larvae numbers are gong to be high.


On the other hand if the weather has been hot and dry for a number of days then the numbers are going to be low.


As for the second question, yes the larvae sometimes do over-winter. It has been found that some larvae can survive if the winter is not real harsh. Thus, when the pasture starts to become green and you are ready to let the goats out to that lush pasture, you may be turning them into a field of new larvae. This is why you should be on a good deworming program that would be specific to your farm. In addition, larvae may over-winter in goats in a dormant stage if parasites are not eliminated in late fall with a broad spectrum deworming product.

Parasite Detection

The best way to determine what parasites are infecting your goats is to have your veterinarian check a manure sample. He can then tell what parasites are infecting your goats as well as at what level and what product to use to treat your goats.

 

You can also check your goats for anemia by looking at their gums and the conjunctiva around the eyes. Both places should be bright pink to red in color. If the gums or conjunctiva are pale pink or gray, then the goat is showing signs of anemia, which is an indication that you may need to deworm. Coccidiosis is often a cause of loose bowel movements and will show up as animals with dirty rear ends.


Control programs

Many producers have always used dewormers. Some of the larvae may have become immune to the treatment. So what can you do? First you need to have a good game plan. You should be able to identify what parasite your animals have through fecal examination, know what products to use to control them and understand how to manage grazing to decrease the chance of infection.

 

I feel that the third one listed is very important. If you manage your pastures and utilize good management practices you will not have a large infestation of larvae. Grazing management involves moving goats between several pasture areas, maintaining forage in the pastures in a vegetative or growing condition, and moving animals out of one pasture when it has been grazed down to an appropriate level. Orchardgrass and fescue should be grazed when the plants are between 3 inches and 10 inches tall. Bluegrass and clover should be grazed when the plants are 2 inches to 5 inches tall. During the hot and dry summer months, goats tend to pick up fewer parasites because the larvae cannot survive for long without moisture.

A good rule of thumb for strategic deworming is to start a few days before turning goats out to pasture in the spring and then follow up with another deworming several weeks later. Another strategic time to deworm is right after a hard frost in the fall. This will “clean them out” for the winter. The goats won’t become reinfected without warm, moist weather conditions.


Throughout the summer you will need to monitor the herd and deworm as needed. Another rule of thumb is that when you deworm you need to treat all animals including new kids down to just a few days old. Check the product label for any restrictions such as pregnancy, age, or withdrawal periods.


Deworming Products
There are few products approved for use in goats. Therefore, you may need to establish a relationship with your veterinarian who can prescribe treatments not listed on a label.

Rumatel (morantel) This product is effective against stomach worms, worms of the small intestine and worms of the large intestines. This product is labeled for use in goats.

Safe-guard (fenbendazole) This product is effective against lungworms, stomach worms and intestinal worms. The product will also control tapeworms when the dosage is doubled. It is labeled for use in goats.

Ivomec (ivermectin) This is a broad-spectrum deworming product that controls a wide range of internal and external parasites. This product is available as a pour-on, injectable, or drench (sheep) formulation. This product is not approved for use in goats.

 

Levasole or Tramisol (levamisole) This product is effective against major nematodes, including lungworms. Either product is available as a bolus (large pill), injectable, or drench powder. This product is not approved for use in goats.

Valbazen (valbazen) This is a broad-spectrum product that is effective against liver flukes, stomach worms, tapeworms, intestinal worms, and lungworms. The product is available as a drench. This product is not approved for use in goats.

Corid (amprolium) This product is used to treat for coccidiosis. This product is available as a solution or as a powder. Both can be mixed with drinking water as a preventative treatment or a control treatment. The treatment period is for five days for both prevention and control. This product is not approved for use in goats.

Controlling internal parasites in any animal is a challenge. Work to deworm strategically so that you can prevent large infections and rotate deworming products to prevent a buildup of resistant parasites. Be diligent in your deworming efforts and occasionally check stool samples to monitor the effectiveness of your deworming program.


White Muscle Disease

18 September, 2015rodster385Comments (0)

White Muscle Disease or stiff kid disease is caused by a deficiency of selenium, vitamin E or both. Soils in Pennsylvania are selenium deficient, so livestock producers should supplement mineral mixes or rations with additional selenium or give does a selenium injection. It is helpful to also include vitamin E with the injection because selenium and vitamin E work together to prevent the disease. Be cautious when adding selenium to rations or giving an injection, as the window between the requirement and toxic levels is small. Characteristics of the disease include stiffness in the hind legs, an arched back and inability to stand. Low selenium levels during pregnancy may also produce kids who have not develop a sucking reflex. Kids who are not able to suck will starve to death very quickly.


Trimming Goats Hooves

18 September, 2015rodster385Comments (0)

Goats are cloven hoofed and the horny tissue grows continuously and needs regular trimming. We would trim hoofs at Knocknagulagh Boers every 2 Months. Goats running on concrete or hilly country with rocks would not normally need as much attention as those in paddocks. A pair of well sharpened Foot Rot shears are required for this job. The goat needs to be put in a goat handler, tied securely or held by another person. You must stand with your back to the goat as if shoeing a horse. Lift the leg at the pastern with one hand leaving the other hand free to cut the hoof. You must then cut off the outer horny growth, level with the rest of the hoof, cutting away from you towards the toe of the hoof. It will then be necessary to cut the heel down to the same level. Now make sure the goat is standing well balanced on all four feet. Remember a lame goat is a poor grazer and will spend a lot of time lying down whenever it should be growing. Its conformation may also be permanently altered if the hooves are not trimmed.


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